These found poems are drawn from interviews with elderly citizens of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation recorded in 1937-38 as part of the Indian-Pioneer History Project sponsored by the federal Works Progress Administration and archived at the Oklahoma Historical Society and the University of Oklahoma. You can read more about this project at Tribal College and Reckoning. —Eds.

the east was always a direction of respect the old country in the talks of the older indians has been often referred to and to them has been hvsossv lecv under the rising of the sun the rising of the sun in the east denoted the new day as well as the new sun which to them was representative of the beginning of a life the east was a mother country and home to them and they never fully forgot their life there they had enjoyed their own hunting grounds their life as they wished it lived and the other things that came dear to them they had first planted their customs and beliefs in the old eastern country home where they were strictly observed and kept up nothing was ever done either in ceremonial or medicine unless the east was faced even during the birth of children the east was always faced by the woman the old customs of the old country are being followed when the medicine of the tribe is taken when facing the east Siah Hicks, b. ca. 1879

JAMES TREAT is the author of Around the Sacred Fire: Native Religious Activism in the Red Power Era and the editor of several volumes of native literature. His essays and poems have appeared in American Indian Culture and Research Journal, American Quarterly, Contemporary Verse 2, Cultural Survival Quarterly, Fourth Genre, Indian Country Today, Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, Muscogee Nation News, Native Americas, Orion, Studies in American Indian Literature, Tribal College Journal, Verbatim Found Poetry, and other academic and literary journals. Treat is an enrolled citizen of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. More information about his work is available at his website.